Government internment of “enemy aliens” during World War II has been a controversial topic ever since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Not only is the history much more complicated than is popularly known, the various policies applied at the time were very complicated, and often contradictory. In this episode we talk about how Japanese-Americans, Italian-Americans, and German-Americans were treated during the 20th Century’s darkest years.

Here are some resources about Internment:

Dorothea Lange’s Photographs of Japanese-American Internees:
https://anchoreditions.com/blog/dorothea-lange-censored-photographs
https://www.archives.gov/news/articles/japanese-internment-75th-anniversary

Japanese-American Internment:
https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation
https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2011/08/world-war-ii-internment-of-japanese-americans/100132/
http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_home_civil_rights_japanese_american.htm

Italian-American Internment:
Stephen Fox, The Unknown Internment: An Oral History of the Relocation of Italian Americans During World War II
Stephen Fox, UnCivil Liberties: Italian Americans Under Siege during World War II
Lawrence Distasi, Una Storia Segreta : The Secret History of Italian American Evacuation and Internment During World War II

German-American Internment:
Arnold Krammer, Undue Process: The Untold Story of America’s German Alien Internees
Stephen Fox, America’s Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German American Internment & Exclusion in World War II: Memory & History